Exploitative governance under SPDC and DKBA authorities in Dooplaya District
With largely consolidated control over Dooplaya District in southern Karen State the SPDC and DKBA, as the two dominant (and allied) military forces, operate under a system of coexistence. The local civilian population, in turn, faces exploitative governance on two fronts as both SPDC and DKBA soldiers seek to extract money, labour, food and other supplies from them. Enforcing heavy movement restrictions on top of persistent exploitative demands, local communities are facing deteriorating livelihood opportunities, increasing poverty, and a constriction of educational and health care opportunities. Persistent human rights abuses thus foster the economic pressures fuelling the continuing migration of rural communities in Dooplaya District to refugee camps in Thailand and towards livelihood opportunities at urban centres in Burma and Thailand. This report examines the situation of abuse in Dooplaya District from January to June 2008.
Dooplaya District in southern Karen State has been under heavy military control since 1997. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) operate on the basis of coexistence with some areas more DKBA-controlled and others more SPDC-controlled, but with both groups largely prevalent across the district and allied in their operations. So far this year both groups have been extracting 'rents', from the local civilian population though coerced and uncompensated demands for labour, money, food and other supplies. As a consequence, local villagers have had severe difficulty tending to plantations and agriculture fields and conducting other forms of livelihood activities. This has stifled household income at the same time that local rice and other commodity prices have been increasing.
As an illustrative case, the residents of Ma Yin Gone village in Kyone Doh township (Kru Tu in Karen) have been facing severe difficulties just meeting their basic subsistence needs. Among the village's 250 households, there are around 150 households which remain dependant on daily wage labour such as planting rubber saplings and weeding rubber plantations in order to meet their subsistence needs. These villagers do not own any farmland or gardens. The remaining hundred or so villagers do have their own farmland or gardens and therefore do not need to worry as much about their day-to-day survival. Ma Yin Gone villagers, like most communities in Dooplaya District, must also meet regular demands for forced labour. In response to economic pressures underpinned by exploitative abuses, large numbers of Ma Yin Gone's poor villagers, both female and male, have travelled to neighbouring Thailand in search of wage labour. With cash earnings, these expatriate labourers have been able to send financial remittances back home to support their families. These remittances have been crucial in meeting daily subsistence needs in the face of continuing SPDC and DKBA demands for labour, money, food and supplies and draconian restrictions on movement. Notwithstanding these remittances, many local residents continue to face severe difficulties in meeting their subsistence needs. One local villager reported in January 2008 that local SPDC authorities forced residents of his village to plant dry season rice crops and castor plants and to do uncompensated construction work. Describing the economic situation in Ma Yin Gone, this villager said that:
Forced labour and other extortion
The residents of Dooplaya District face regular demands for forced labour including cutting down and delivering bamboo poles, fabricating and delivering thatch shingles and cutting down and delivering wooden posts, amongst other tasks. These materials are typically used to build or rebuild army camps. In Kyone Doh township, orders for these provisions have recently come from Htun Lin, camp commander of SPDC Infantry Battalion (IB) #230 in the area south of Kya In Seik Gyi town; Thein Myit Tun, column commander of Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #208; and Zaw Min Pyo, column #2 commander of SPDC IB #63. In order to deliver the specified thatch shingles, bamboo and wood poles, individual villagers have either had to transport the materials by bullock cart if they were in possession of one, or by foot.
Some villages in Kyone Doh township were also obliged to send two representatives per village to attend a 'training' session at the end of 2007 held by the Village Peace and Development Council (VPDC) Chairperson of their village tract and some higher-level SPDC officials. The training dealt with various construction projects related to village development. At the training sessions, the SPDC authorities gave speeches and stated that they would no longer extort money from the villagers nor torture them. Rather, the SPDC officials stated that they would lead the people towards democracy. However, at the end of the training sessions the SPDC official ordered the village representatives to return to their village, collect funds from the local residents and organise the villagers to carry out specified construction projects. The SPDC officials said that they would pay one third of the costs of the construction projects but that the villagers were required to come up with the remaining two thirds of the funds as well as provide the labour. In the case of some projects, it appears that local SPDC authorities paid for the building materials but required that the villagers provide their labour for free.
On March 3rd 2008, column #2 commander Zaw Min Pyo of SPDC IB #63 ordered villages in Kyone Doh township to produce and deliver thatch shingles, bamboo poles and wooden poles to his army camp. The amounts demanded were as follows:
Being under consolidated military control, SPDC officers also regularly demand that local villagers in Dooplaya District pay arbitrary 'taxes' on small-scale trade and agriculture. For example, SPDC commander Chan Nyin Aung along with 8 soldiers entered Kyo Kweh village of Kyone Doh township and demanded 4,000 kyat from each saw mill owner before departing the village on March 16th 2008.
Also, according to Kwekalu, a Karen-language news agency, on June 2nd 2008, soldiers from DKBA Battalion #907 clashed with KNLA soldiers from a security column of Battalion #18 at the edge of Aw Ler village, in Dooplaya District. Two DKBA soliders died and one was hurt. Following the fighting the DKBA soldiers reportedly forced the villagers to pay them compensation money totalling 700,000 kyat [US $588.23]. The next day on June 3rd, following orders from DKBA officer Na Khan Mway, soldiers from DKBA Battalions #907 and #999 burnt down 18 houses in Gkya Gka Wa village.
Restrictions on movement
Restrictions on movement are kept in place across large areas of Dooplaya District largely on the pretext of 'counter insurgency' operations but functioning primarily as a means to prevent villagers from evading the many extortionate demands placed upon them. Restrictions on movement also have the secondary effect of inhibiting small-scale trade and travel outside of village confines to forests or agricultural fields in order to address livelihood needs.
As an example, the residents of villages in the area of Noh Poe village in Kawkareik township currently face heavy movement restrictions, having been accused of acting as spies for the Karen National Union (KNU) and Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA). Local DKBA personnel have claimed that the villagers of Noh Poe have delivered information to KNLA soldiers and, on these grounds, have enforced movement restrictions. The residents of Noh Poe depend for their livelihood on opportunities available outside of their village confines, including foraging for wild food in the surrounding forest and cultivating hillside paddy fields. However, in order to enforce movement restrictions around Noh Poe village, DKBA soldiers have deployed landmines around the village and continue to patrol the area, making it virtually impossible for villagers to carry out these essential livelihood activities. These restrictions on movement, in combination with the increasing price of rice, mean that many Noh Poe villagers are facing impending food insecurity that will continue at least into the near future. One villager from the area describes the community's situation below:
Health and education
The persistent forced labour and arbitrary taxation along with restrictions on movement, described above, have served to devastatingly undermine rural livelihoods in Dooplaya District, worsen poverty, exacerbate the region's humanitarian crisis and reduce educational and health care opportunities. Speaking about the health situation in Dooplaya District, one KHRG field researcher operating in the area reported that:
In regards to education, many parents in Dooplaya District have been facing severe difficulties financing their children's basic education. The course fees for one student in middle school amount to 50,000 kyat [US $42]. On top of this, students must also pay money for sports fees, teachers' donation fees and other intermittent school expenses. As a consequence, some children have sought educational opportunities in neighbouring Thailand in both refugee camps and in schools for the children of migrant workers where school fees are largely waived.
Living under the rule of both SPDC and DKBA authorities, villagers in Dooplaya District face persistent exploitation on two fronts. As a consequence of regular demands for labour, money, food and other supplies in combination with restrictions on movement, many villagers are facing collapsing livelihoods, increasing poverty, declining educational opportunities and worsening health conditions. Many villagers have responded by travelling to Thailand in search of medical treatment, educational opportunities, employment and personal security. So long as the pattern of exploitative local governance in Dooplaya District continues, this interconnected trend of livelihoods vulnerability, poverty, worsening humanitarian conditions and migration can be expected to continue.
 'Rents' are "commonly defined as the extraction of uncompensated value from others"; Ken MacLean. 2007. "Spaces of extraction: Governance along the riverine networks of Nyaunglebin District," in Myanmar – The State, Community and the Environment, Asia Pacific Press, p. 259.
 Loh ah pay; A Burmese term now commonly used in reference to forced labour; although traditionally referring to voluntary service for temples or the local community, not military or state projects.
 "Karen separated group [DKBA] burnt down 18 households," Kwekalu, July 18th 2008.
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